See Article History Alternative Titles:
The upper-most layer is empty but was once occupied by ancient beings who descended to lower layers. The second layer, or sky, is the home of spirits of dead men and women, and it resembles the earth except that the hunting is better, the food tastier, and the spirits of people are young and beautiful.
The third layer is the earth, and below the earth is the fourth layer, or underworld. In the underworld live the Amahi-teri, ancient spirits that bring harm to living humans. All shamans can use demons over which they have personal control to cure or cause illnesses.
The shaman is called upon to divine the causes of illness or misfortune, cure the ill, and sicken the enemy by sending demons that he controls. Shamans are also expert at using wild and domesticated plants that are useful for casting spells.
Only men can become shamans, and they must complete an arduous training period requiring food deprivation and abstinence from sex.
Perhaps the most important and certainly the most dramatic ceremony is the reahu, or mortuary ceremony. It culminates when the bone ash of the deceased is mixed in a plantain puree and consumed by mourners in a demonstration of respect for the dead and in consolation to the close relatives of the deceased.
This ceremony has considerable political implications if the deceased was a valiant warrior waiteri slain by enemies and when attended by members of allied villages. Sparse geometric designs, usually black or red, adorn common objects such as baskets, arrow points, and bodies.
Although these acts may have political and social significance e. A shaman must diagnose the cause and sometimes figuratively pull the demon out, often with the help of his own demons. To prepare, a shaman frequently decorates himself and his surroundings handsomely and invariably inhales a hallucinogenic snuff to aid contact with hekura.
Illness may also be caused by the breach of a ritual regulation or taboo. Upon death, there are instantaneous lamentations, singing, and chanting. Usually the corpse is very quickly burned by the men, while women and children absent themselves from the village lest they become polluted by the smoke.
The men then collect and pulverize the bones and pour the ash into a set of gourds that are stored in the village. Close relatives, covillagers, and sometimes allies consume the ash, which is mixed into a large trough of plantain soup.
Jeremy Sep 6, 9:Yanomamö - Marriage and Family Marriage. Yanomamö marriage rules are prescriptive in that marital partners must be cross cousins. Ideally, mates are double cross cousins, a result of the practice of sister exchange.
Women typically marry soon after their first menses with men in their early twenties.
Although marriage is patrilocal, a husband. Jan 26, · Politically, the Yanomami tribe forms alliances between villages, and relationships are often facilitated by trade and marriages.
Feasts are a common activity in the society, and they bring together members of the community for a time of dancing, eating, rituals, chanting, trading and allow for the expression of ideas.
Nov 26, · The Yanomami people traditionally practice animism as their religion. Animism is the belief that plants, inanimate objects, and natural phenomena have living souls.
To the Yanomami the forest is not only composed of plant and animal life, but of spiritual life as initiativeblog.com: Our Indigenous World: The Yanomami People - Group 9.
Yanomami culture was severely endangered.
In the mids, garimpeiros (small independent gold-diggers) started to enter the Yanomami country. Where these garimpeiros settled, they killed members of the Yanomami tribe in conflict over initiativeblog.comela (southeastern): 16, ().
The word "Yanomami" means human being in their language and was adopted by Chagnon to refer to the culture and the people. The Yanomami language family contains four subgroups: Yanoma (Yanomam), Sanuma, Ninam, and Yanam.
34 Comments. As recently as the late 20th century, small independent gold miners would kill Yanomami tribe members in disputes over who had a right to mine the land. Sometimes it is really hard to distinguish which is the more primitive society.
Descriptions of Yanomami Culture and Life. Napoleon A. Chagnon,