This is input model, i. He believed that it was possible to organize curriculum without having to specify in advance the expected behavioral change in students. According to him, the content of curriculum can be selected on the basis that it is worthwhile in itself and not merely as the means to achieve behavioral objective. Similarly, teaching methods and learning experiences can be selected in terms of the worthwhile as learning activities.
Reproduced from Conference Proceedings, pp. McIntosh, University of Surrey Abstract This paper outlines some factors relevant to establishing a model for curriculum planning for the study of international adult education. To that extent some philosophical considerations, some general goals and aims and some implications for the provision and practice of such identified.
Introduction This paper is a consideration of international adult education as an academic discipline. Its aim is to outline some factors relevant to establishing and developing a model for curriculum planning. Adult education has, within the past ten years, become a genuinely international movement1.
Collins2 points out that there is a growing literature on international adult education. Cassara and Draper3 also draw attention to the increasing concern of graduate programmes in the United States of America USA and Canada with other countries with international adult education.
There seems to be little work on developing the curriculum for the study of international adult education and yet the need seems to be becoming not only more apparent but inevitable. One of the problems that emerges in reading the literature available on the subject is the ubiquity of the subject matter.
As Cookson4 writes, within and across national boundaries adult education reveals a bewildering complexity of forms. Hopefully this paper will help to clarify some of the issues.
Defining international adult education A fundamental requisite of any academic research is having some manageable definitions. As in any applied discipline, international adult education can be defined in terms of a knowledge base on the one hand, and as a field of study and practice on the other, or what Boucouvalas5 calls the distinction between the perspective or dimension of international adult education and the field.
The difference according to Cassara and Draper6 is that international adult education implies commitment to action. A general definition that I have recently offered7 is 'a study of national, transnational, and comparative adult education issues aimed at developing the theoretical, conceptual and practical frameworks of, and for, the education of adults'.
Developing a curriculum in international adult education Stenhouse8 defines the curriculum as an attempt to communicate the essential principles and features of an educational proposal. It could be argued that the study of international adult education lends itself, by its descriptive interpretation, to a view of curriculum based on the idea of common culture and common curriculum.
Lawton9 refers to the situational or cultural analysis model of curriculum. He says that the logic of this model is that it demands that we look at society as it is now and as it is developing, also examining the curriculum of the past, and trying to plot trends of development.
In identifying the kind of society we have, and what kind of society we want to have, this has implications for the content of the curriculum, the target population and for practice.
In international adult education it seems to me that these are the arguments that are being applied to the world: A study of the world today will clearly take into account past perspectives.
Some of the recurring themes that are being identified for the purpose and development of the curriculum of international adult education I will briefly describe next. Some philosophical considerations Merriam10 stresses the importance of understanding the philosophical foundation of the field of adult education.
She says that a philosophical perspective distinguishes a professional adult educator from the practitioner or paraprofessional, on the grounds that such an orientation can inform decision-making, clarify practice and guide planning.
In planning a curriculum model the philosophical criteria, therefore, provides the basis for at least the aims of the curriculum, its justification and the structure of knowledge on which to base its practices.
Some assumptions underlying the philosophy of international adult education, are therefore: Pervasive goals and aims of international adult education Miyasaka11 also stresses the need to discover the common aspects and problems that are being faced in adult education.
As he reminds us, we are sharing the times and the world in which we live. Whilst he says that any trifle difference in each nation should not be neglected, he sees the priority as recognising similarities. The following are some of the pervasive areas of international adult education study.
Caroline Ellwood13 wrote about the future development of British university adult education. She stressed the need to consider global development to avoid parochialism. As Cookson14 says, when theory, research and practice are generated within the border of one country, then the curriculum will be similarly limited and limiting.
Rubenson15 states that an openness and keen interest in what is going on elsewhere in the world does not characterise the work of adult education. In consequence the knowledge production suffers from parochialism. Raising global consciousness As Dohmen16 reminds us, all the different nations, cultures and periods of historical development have their special value and meaning.
Yet, as I have written myself17, there is a prevailing need to integrate material from different perspectives into a coherent basis for research and discussion. Indeed Dohmen says that it must be the interest and responsibility of international adult educators to promote our thinking about the meaning of human life and history in a given diversity of nations and cultures.
Niemi18 writes about a planetary consciousness, which is caring about universal issues that lie beyond the boundaries, or selfish concerns, or our own culture, or ourselves personally.
Social development and change: The emphasis in international adult education, however is to evaluate critically the direction of change, and its interpretation in terms of development. As Gelpi20 states, knowledge, learning and education do not always develop in the direction of democratising a given society.
Inherent in Gelpi's position is that the role of adult education is embedded in a given value position. · Lastly, the situational model is posited by Lawton () and Skilbeck () who felt the emphasis should be placed on the context where the curriculum is.
Lawton saw education as transmitting elements of culture and curriculum should therefore be organised in terms of initiativeblog.com://initiativeblog.com Denis lawton model of the curriculum process 1.
Denis Lawton Model of the Curriculum Process The model has been developed by Denis Lawton as a reaction against what he sees as the danger of the Behavioral Objectives Model/Taylor initiativeblog.com://initiativeblog.com · NorthWest Research Associates Webster Street Monterey, CA Work phone: Visiting Professor at the University of California at Santa Barbara situational awareness,” (Invited Paper) International Beacon Satellite initiativeblog.com A model of the links between personal and environmental factors and individual adaptation.
how individuals' experiences in one setting (such as school or work) can change and be changed by other settings in which they participate (such as the family).initiativeblog.com What is the Situational Model Malcolm Skilbeck Situational Model developed by an Australian, Malcolm Skilbeck Example Conclusion Use of the Situation model happens naturally owing to pressure from stakeholders, so is being implemented anyway!
External factors Societal expectations and changes Grundy and initiativeblog.com the transmission of. · The concept of school based curriculum development has been central to my professional concerns and ways of thinking about educational change since the late ’initiativeblog.com://initiativeblog.com