By successfully implementing recovery time into the training schedule, you allow for the positive adaptation to occur after the training session. Athletes often experience short-term muscle soreness or fatigue after an overloading training session. As an athlete, coach, or health care provider monitoring performance and interested in preventing under-recovery it is important to understand the spectrum of it. Overreaching OR is a short term stagnation in performance due to overloading the body without balanced recovery.
This information may be connected to a specific event e. Do you only experience these symptoms during exercise, and not at rest?
Symptoms experienced only during exercise generally suggest that exercise itself is a triggering event e. EIB without asthma Suspicion of exercise as a trigger for symptoms should prompt more specific questions related to the exercise itself; however, it is also possible for some conditions to first be noticed only during exercise when cardiorespiratory demands are greatest and then eventually progress to being present at rest Do you experience any symptoms in your heart, such as chest tightness, chest pain, unusually rapid pulse or unusual heart rhythms?
A feeling of chest tightness is common in asthma and EIB but may also be present in other cardiopulmonary conditions e. This may be useful for identifying acute conditions, such as spontaneous pneumothorax, dyspnoea associated with trauma, etc Are your symptoms becoming more severe or have you developed new symptoms beyond your breathing issues?
This may provide some insight into the time course of the condition and whether it is systemic i. EILO ; for instance, overtraining syndrome and infectious diseases may initially cause shortness of breath during high-intensity exercise but progress to new symptoms such as general fatigue and muscle pain Is breathing painful, and if so, where is the pain?
Some causes of dyspnoea are associated with pain e. Muscular contusions or tears, joint dislocations and skeletal fractures that could influence the mechanics of breathing must be considered Do Causes and considerations of overtraining ever feel lightheaded or dizzy while experiencing these symptoms?
These symptoms suggests the individual may be developing hypoxaemia e. Overtraining syndrome and infectious disease e. Lyme disease, mononucleosis or influenza are common and may contribute to general fatigue, malaise and unusual soreness Emotional illness e.
Exercise-specific symptoms How long have you been doing the type of exercise in which you experience these symptoms? Athletes who have recently moved up to a higher level of participation may simply be less fit than the others around them, and therefore be breathing significantly harder and feel they are underperforming as a result Do you wheeze or make noises during breathing?
Expiratory wheezing is common in asthma and EIB If so, do you think it is during inhalation or exhalation? If certain types of exercise are tolerable but others are not, clinicians should try to identify differentiating factors; for instance, exercise posture and musculoskeletal demands can influence symptoms in dyspnoea of musculoskeletal origin e.
This can provide further insight into possible triggering factors e. Allergies and rhinoconjunctivitis may cause dyspnoea themselves or trigger seasonal EIB Humidity can also influence airway responses i. Airborne pollutants, such as vehicular exhaust from fossil-fuelled automobiles and ice resurfacers, may trigger airway responses Likewise, indoor pools with high levels of chloramines may also trigger airway responses Certain venues may also contain other respiratory irritants e.
While the latter two questions should be obvious, they should be included if other suspected causes are not obvious Is it possible that you are pregnant?
Diagnosis should not be based on reported symptoms and question responses alone, due to poor diagnostic accuracy. Rather, these questions should be viewed as additional questions beyond those routinely asked during a clinical exam i. Additionally, responses to these types of questions may be useful in determining whether interventions are successful and whether the condition is progressing positively or negatively over time.
Including demonstration of such noises if possible. In the previous examples, all three athletes experienced similar symptoms during exercise, despite different physiological mechanisms.
Parents, coaches, athletes and even healthcare providers may recognise common traits between various athletes, and assume that each individual has the same cause of dyspnoea and requires the same treatment.
Other team mates experiencing similar symptoms may believe they also have asthma and seek similar treatment for it. Alternatively, it is possible for poor physical fitness to incorrectly be viewed as the reason for dyspnoea, such that athletes with potentially serious pathological conditions that need treatment may simply be encouraged just to try harder, do more training, be patient and hope that it resolves itself, or simply give up.
Clearly, it is important that clinicians minimise assumptions for each individual case and not be biased by unofficial suspected diagnoses.
This scenario of diagnosing athletes with asthma and prescribing an inhaler based on common symptoms of dyspnoea may seem completely reasonable to some but highly inappropriate to others. It is nonetheless a common approach, which ultimately results in many misdiagnosed and unsuccessfully treated athletes.
In the following sections, we will discuss common types of airway dysfunction, conditions that may imitate it and various other conditions that may cause an athlete to present with a chief complaint of dyspnoea.
Often, diagnosis is inappropriately based on signs and symptoms alone, and these individuals are provided a bronchodilator inhaler and instructed to use it before performing activity. However, this paradigm is inappropriate for a number of reasons described in the following sections.
Asthma attacks may be triggered by exercise as well as numerous other factors, such as airborne allergens e. Bronchoconstriction that occurs shortly after or in some cases, during exercise is specifically referred to as exercise-induced bronchoconstriction EIB and is relatively common in individuals with asthma.
Epidemiology and misdiagnosis EIB is commonly diagnosed in active individuals who report symptoms of dyspnoea, fatigue or inferior performance during exercise.
EIB occurs across ages and fitness levels [ 45 ]. Guidelines for diagnosis and management of asthma [ 8 ] and EIB [ 79 — 11 ] are well established.
However, asthma and EIB are frequently misdiagnosed in clinical practice [ 12 ], in part because diagnosis is typically made based on symptoms alone as in the previous examplesrather than strictly adhering to proper diagnostic algorithms [ 13 ].
The signs and symptoms of EIB are very nonspecific and therefore have poor clinical diagnostic value. Inappropriate diagnosis and management of EIB can lead to continuation or progression of symptoms, which may lead to impaired performance, discontinuation of sport or in extreme cases, sudden death [ 1415 ].Table Symptoms of overtraining.
Overreaching. The term “overreaching” refers to the earliest phase of overtraining. Overreaching consists of extreme muscle soreness that occurs as a result of excessive training with inadequate rest/recovery between hard training sessions.
Causes and Considerations of Overtraining Pages: 2 ( words) Published: February 24, Overtraining is a physical, behavioral, and emotional condition that occurs when the volume and intensity of an individual's exercise exceeds their recovery capacity. It is well known that amino acids are the building blocks of muscle.
They play very specific key roles in health and performance in human physiology and help athletes retain muscle and burn fat. Did Harper Lee write To Kill a Mockingbird? The recent 'discovery' and subsequent publication of Harper Lee's earlier novel Go Set a Watchmen has generated renewed scrutiny of the chain of events.
Is the newly published book a discarded rough draft that was to become the universally beloved classic. Overtraining syndrome, as it is referred to in the medical literature, is a serious problem marked most noticeably by a decrease in performance (strength, speed, endurance, or other), increased fatigue, persistent muscle soreness, mood disturbances, and feeling "burnt out" or "stale.".
Continuous training involves four considerations: the mode, the frequency, the duration, and the intensity of exercise. True Overtraining .