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Native inhabitants[ edit ] The most commonly accepted model of migration to the New World is that peoples from Asia crossed the Bering land bridge to the Americas some 16, years ago.
The remains of Arlington Springs Man on Santa Rosa Island are among the traces of a very early habitation, dated to the Wisconsin glaciation the most recent ice age about 13, years ago.
In all, some 30 tribes or culture groups lived in what is now California, gathered into perhaps six different language family groups. These groups included the early-arriving Hokan family winding up in the mountainous far north and Colorado River basin in the south and the recently arrived Uto-Aztecan of the desert southeast.
This cultural diversity was among the densest in North America, and was likely the result of a series of migrations and invasions during the last 10,—15, years. Coastal tribes were a major source of trading beads, produced from mussel shells using stone tools.
The acorns from these trees were pounded into a powder, and the acidic tannin leached out to make edible flour. The deserts of the southeast were home to tribes who learned to thrive in that harsh environment by making careful use of local plants and living in oases and along water courses.
The indigenous people practiced various forms of forest gardening in the forests, grasslands, A history of argentina before spanish colonization woodlands, and wetlands, ensuring that desired food and medicine plants continued to be available. The Native Americans controlled fire on a regional scale to create a low-intensity fire ecology which prevented larger, catastrophic fires and sustained a low-density "wild" agriculture in loose rotation.
A form of fire-stick farming was used to clear areas of old growth to encourage new in a repeated cycle; a primitive permaculture.
Slave-trading and war among tribes alternated with periods of relative peace. The total population of Native California is estimated, by the time of extensive European contact in the 18th century, to have been perhapsBefore Europeans landed in North America, about one-third of all natives in what is now the United States were living in the area that is now California.
The first European explorers, flying the flags of Spain and of Englandsailed along the coast of California from the early 16th century to the midth century, but no European settlements were established.
The most important colonial power, Spain, focused attention on its imperial centers in Mexico and Peru. Confident of Spanish claims to all lands touching the Pacific Ocean including CaliforniaSpain sent an exploring party sailing along the California coastline.
The California seen by these ship-bound explorers was one of hilly grasslands and wooded canyons, with few apparent resources or natural ports to attract colonists. The other colonial states of the era, with their interest on more densely populated areas, paid limited attention to this distant part of the world.
It was not until the middle of the 18th century that both Russian and British explorers and fur traders began establishing stations on the coast.
The Spaniards conjectured that these places may be one and the same. An expedition in discovered a bay, most likely that of La Pazbefore experiencing difficulties and returning.
Francisco de Ulloa[ edit ] Also: He made it to the mouth of the Colorado River, then sailed around the peninsula as far as Cedros Island. The account of this voyage marks the first-recorded application of the name "California". He was either of Portuguese or Spanish background, although his origins remain unclear.
He was a soldier, crossbowmanand navigator who sailed for the Spanish Crown. In June Cabrillo led an expedition in two ships of his own design and construction from the west coast of what is now Mexico.
Cabrillo and his crew continued north and came ashore October 8 at San Pedro bay, later to become the port of Los Angeles, which he originally named the bay of smoke bahia de los fumos due to the many cooking fires of the native Chumash Indians along the shore.
The expedition then continued north in an attempt to discover a supposed coastal route to the mainland of Asia. Drake held the first Protestant Christian service at Nova Albion.
A SHORT HISTORY OF ARGENTINA. By Tim Lambert. Colonial Argentina. Before Europeans came to Argentina it was thinly populated. In the Northwest people grew crops such as potatoes and squash. Brazil, Uruguay and Argentina at war against Paraguay, a landlocked country looking to expand and ruled by the Lopez family. The war lasted 6 years and caused more deaths than any other war in South America. Paraguay was defeated and lost a third of its territory to Brazil and Argentina. In , the conquest and colonization of the Río de la Plata, was left in the hands of Pedro de Mendoza, thanks to an agreement signed with Charles V. Two years later, Nuestra Señora del Buen Ayre was founded in the canyons of Río de la Plata (Plata River).
He ventured inland south along the coast and recorded a visit to what is likely Carmel Bay. Between andSpanish merchants out of Mexico City financed thriving trade between Manila, Acapulco and Callao.
In Manila, they picked up cotton from India and silks from China. The Spanish Crown viewed too much imported Asian cloth to Mexico and Lima as a competitive threat to the Spanish American markets for cloth produced in Spain, and as a result, restricted the tonnage permitted on the ships from Manila to Acapulco.
Mexico City merchants in retaliation overstuffed the ships, even using the space for water to carry additional contraband cargo. As a result, the ships coming from Manila had enough water for two months, but the trip took four to six months.
Hawaii was unknown to the Spanish navigators. The sea currents take ships sailing from Manila to Acapulco up north, so that they first touch land at San Francisco or Monterey, in what is now California.
This was probably a stimulus for Spain to build presidios at San Francisco and Monterey in The British, too, stepped up their activities in the Pacific. They compiled an account of the Californian mission systemthe land and the people. Traders, whalers and scientific missions followed in the next decades.
The contraband might then have been shipped across the Gulf of California to enter mainland Mexico by way of Sonora, where the Jesuits also had missions and sympathies for their financial backers. A total of 30 Spanish missions in Baja California were established.In , the conquest and colonization of the Río de la Plata, was left in the hands of Pedro de Mendoza, thanks to an agreement signed with Charles V.
Two years later, Nuestra Señora del Buen Ayre was founded in the canyons of Río de la Plata (Plata River). A SHORT HISTORY OF ARGENTINA. By Tim Lambert. Colonial Argentina. Before Europeans came to Argentina it was thinly populated.
In the Northwest people grew crops such as potatoes and squash. The History of Argentina () excerpt and text search Lynch, John. Spanish Colonial Administration, The Intendant System in the Viceroyalty of the River Plate. Like all Latin American countries, Argentina has a tumultuous history, one tainted by periods of despotic rule, corruption and hard times.
All the content in this America section was developed from lessons, namely; – America in the s – The Slave TradeThe content below has been modified to align with the / curriculum changes Conquest, warfare and Spanish early colonialism in the AmericasThe Caribbean Islands.
On the east coast of the continent Argentina, around the river Plate, is colonized from the s. Brazil, meanwhile, is developing in Portuguese hands. This half-century of activity by a single nation, Spain, on the other side of a vast ocean, in an age of relatively primitive sailing vessels, .